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Mitigating Accidental Risks
The safety education is the proactive development of knowledge, attitude, behaviour and skill of the workers on various aspects of safety. This approach contributes significantly towards reduction of accidental risks towards creating inherently safe working culture to benefit all the stakeholders.

The pharmaceutical industry differs from most other industries due to existence of considerable degree of specialisation and product variations, because of which no single firm engaged in all aspects of pharmaceutical manufacture. A hazard is a situation which poses a level of threat to life, health, property or environment. Most hazards are dormant or potential, with only a theoretical risk of harm, however, once a hazard becomes 'active', it can create an emergency situation. When we talk about Industrial Hazard, it is also a level of threat.1 Toxic and corrosive chemicals, fire, explosions and plant personal falling to accidents are major health and safety hazards encountered in the operations of plants in processing industries.
Industrial disasters occur in a commercial context, such as mining accidents and have an environmental impact. The Bhopal disaster is the world's worst industrial disaster to date, and the Chernobyl disaster is regarded the worst nuclear accident in history. Hazards may have longer-term and more dispersed effects, such as dioxin and DDT poisoning. An industrial hazard is a hazard which occurs when one strives for commercial gains in quick time and mostly industrial hazards happen in an industrial area which is making harmful substances like dyes, chemicals and radioactive materials.
These industrial hazards have disastrous environmental repercussions as well as cause great casualty to the human habitation in the factory and around it.2,3 Chemicals are the most common and significant health hazards, for numerous reasons and can combine with other chemicals to make new hazards. All hazards must be taken into account when using and storing chemicals.
Physical Classification of Chemicals
Chemicals may be found in solid, liquid, aerosol, or gas and vapour form. The degree of danger varies according to the form of the chemical and the factors.

Solids: Not all forms of a chemical pose a health hazard. The basic example is, a lead pipe is not a significant health hazard. However, the lead can become a human health hazard if the pipe is sanded or welded, producing lead dust or fumes. The dust or fumes can become airborne and be inhaled, or it can leach into water and be ingested. A chemical may be hazardous even in solid form. For example, individuals who are sensitised to nickel may develop dermatitis from skin contact with the metal. Fuming solids emit toxic vapours that may be inhaled some materials, such as pesticides, can evaporate directly from solid form. Some solids are not a hazard alone but become hazardous when they come into contact with other chemicals (eg, acid in contact with iron can release hydrogen gas).

Aerosols: Aerosol is a term used to describe fine particles (solid or liquid) suspended in air. The examples of aerosols include dust, fumes, mist, fog, smoke, and smog. Knowing how various aerosols are generated will help you anticipate where aerosol hazards may exist in the field aerosols may be a hazard to the eyes, skin, and the respiratory system.

Liquids: Many liquids are hazardous in contact with the skin. They either damage the skin or they are easily absorbed through the skin. It is important to remember that chemicals that can damage or be absorbed through the skin will have this effect on all skin, not just the hands. The degree of hazard associated with a liquid depends on its characteristics and how it is handled. the basic example, inhalation is the primary route for a chemical to enter the body. Its vapour pressure is important in determining the liquid degree of hazard. Liquids with a low vapour pressure may create a low airborne concentration. Liquids with a high vapour pressure may produce high airborne concentrations. The hazard level of an airborne concentration depends in part on the chemical's toxicity.
Some chemicals help other contaminants to penetrate the skin. dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is extremely well absorbed and is used in medicine to transport drugs through the skin. Liquids present a splash hazard. Appropriate protective equipment (eg, goggles, faceshield) and clothing (eg, gloves, coveralls) must be worn to prevent contact with eyes and skin. Liquids present a splash hazard. Appropriate protective equipment (eg, goggles, faceshield) and clothing (eg, gloves, coveralls) must be worn to prevent contact with eyes and skin. Some liquids combine easily with other chemicals to produce hazardous substances. Household bleach, combined with ammonia-based cleaning solutions, produces a substance that is much more hazardous than either of the two original components.4,16

Vapours: A gas is a state of matter in which the molecules are unrestricted by cohesive forces. Vapours are the evaporation products of chemicals that are normally liquid at room temperature. Routes of entry associated with gases and vapours are inhalation, and eye or skin exposure.
The degree of hazard associated with a particular chemical depends on the:
1. Physical properties.
2. Toxicity.
3. Usage.
4. Environment.

Physical and Chemical Characteristics
The physical and chemical characteristics of the chemicals hazards are describe below. Physical and chemical characteristics by referring to the chemical's Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). MSDSs must be readily available in work areas where the hazardous materials are being used. More information about Material Safety Data Sheets is found in the Hazard Communication module. The table 1 shows various parameters of industrial hazard
Autoignition Temperature: The temperature at which a product can undergo spontaneous ignition is called the autoignition temperature. This temperature is very high – commonly in the hundreds of degrees.

Specific Gravity/Density: Specific Gravity (SpG) is the ratio of the density of a substance (at a given temperature) to the density of water at the temperature of its maximum density. Numerically, SpG is equal to the density in g/cc, but is expressed as a pure number without units. If the SpG of a substance is greater than 1 (the SpG of water), it will sink in water (eg, methylene chloride). The substance will float on water if its SpG is less than 1 (eg, oil/petroleum products). This is important when considering containment, cleanup, disposal and treatment alternatives.

Vapour Pressure: The pressure exerted by a vapour against the sides of a closed container is called vapour pressure. Vapour pressure is temperature dependent. As temperature increases, so does the vapour pressure. Thus, more liquid evaporates, vaporises or volatilises. The lower the boiling points of the liquid, the greater the vapour pressure it will exert at a given temperature. Values for vapour pressure are most often given as millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) at a specific temperature. Usually the higher the vapour pressure, the more volatile the substance.5,17

Melting Point: Melting point is the temperature at which a solid, when heated, changes to a liquid. This temperature is also the freezing point, since a liquid can change phase to a solid. The proper terminology depends on the direction of the phase change. If a substance has been transported at a temperature that maintains a solid phase, then a change in temperature may cause the solid to melt. A particular substance may exhibit totally different properties depending on phase. One phase could be inert while the other is highly reactive. Thus, it is imperative to recognise the possibility of a substance changing phase due to changes in the ambient temperature.

Solubility: The ability of a solid, liquid, gas or vapour to dissolve in a solvent is solubility. An insoluble substance can be physically mixed or blended in a solvent for a short time but is unchanged when it finally separates. The solubility of a substance is independent of its density or specific gravity. Solubility is important when determining health effects, reactivity, dispersion, and methods of cleanup and treatment. Solubility is generally expressed in parts per million (ppm) or as a percentage (0-100 per cent).

Boiling Point: Boiling point is the temperature at which liquid changes to a vapour, or the temperature when the pressure of the liquid equals atmospheric pressure. The opposite change in phase is the condensation point.
A major consideration with toxic substances is how they enter the body. With high-boilingpoint liquids, the most common entry is by body contact (skin absorption). Low-boilingpoint liquids are most commonly inhaled.

Flashpoint: Flashpoint is the lowest temperature at which a liquid gives off enough vapour to form an ignitable mixture with air and produce a flame when an ignition source is present. If the ambient temperature is right, then the materials may give off enough vapour at its surface to allow ignition by an open flame or spark. When a vapour does ignite, combustion can continue as long as the temperature remains at or above the flashpoint.

Explosive Limits: The range of concentrations of gases in air which will support the explosive process is bounded by measurable limits called Upper Explosive Limits (UEL) or Upper Flammable Limit (UFL) and Lower Explosive Limits (LEL) or Lower Flammable Limit (LFL). The flammable range is the optimal chemical fuel concentration in air for the ignition and the sustenance of combustion. The lowest concentration of fuel in this range is the LEL/ LFL. The highest ratio that is flammable is the UEL/UFL. Concentrations less than the LEL/LFL are not flammable because there is too little fuel, that is, the mixture is too 'lean' to burn. Concentrations greater than the UEL/UFL are not flammable because there is too much fuel displacing the oxygen (resulting in too little oxygen). The mixture is too 'rich' to burn.

Chemical Use The way a chemical is used will have a significant influence on the degree of hazard associated with its use. Careful review of the process and a walk-through inspection of the work area will provide useful information to help anticipate potential exposure points.6, 7, 18

Industrial Hazard Evaluation Identify which materials may be present and get information from reliable and knowledgeable sources on their hazards. Use instruments (combustible gas indicators) to see if there is a flammable concentration of vapours or gases in the working area. (Note: Certain field equipment and instrumentation that is battery or line-powered is not safe for use in flammable atmospheres because the electrical elements are not protected from exposure to flammable vapours or gases, or combustible dusts). Take precautions as if the hazards do exist even if you are not sure.

Control Hazard To prevent the combustion process, measures must be taken to reduce or eliminate one or more of the four components (fuel, oxygen, heat, chemical chain reaction) needed for combustion. Safe work practices and controls should especially be used when sampling, handling or working with flammable materials. The four combustion components are identified by the words 'fuel', 'oxygen', 'heat', and 'chain reaction'.

Fuel: Remove the fuel source if possible. Ventilate the area to reduce or eliminate high vapour concentrations. Cover the fuel with a non-flammable substance (eg, fire-fighting foam) to prevent mixture with air. Control vapour trails to prevent flashback. Control vapour emissions.

Oxygen: Oxygen is the most difficult portion of a fire to control because it is always present (20.9 per cent) in the air. Oxygen rich atmospheres (> 23.5 per cent) present additional hazards (hotter burn, increased likelihood of ignition) that can be lowered by utilising dilution ventilation (blowing).

Heat: Control all ignition sources by using explosion-proof lighting equipment and spark-resistant tools. Extinguish and prohibit open flames and spark-producing equipment in the work area Sources of ignition include matches, cigarette lighters, electrical switches and equipment, welding sparks, engines and catalytic converters on motor vehicles. Control temperature when possible. Bond and ground all equipment. Metal to metal contact is essential and can be accomplished by using grounding rods or metal water pipes (cold). Scrape painted surfaces to ensure proper connections.9,10

Chemical Chain Reaction: Excess heat from the exothermic reaction of combustion radiates back to fuel to produce vapours and cause selfignition. Three factors control the occurrence of self-heating and selfignition resulting from uninhibited chain reactions: Rate of heat generation. Reduce heat by eliminating the ignition source and applying fire suppressants (water, chemical agents) Effects of ventilation. Increase ventilation to carry away excess heat or decrease ventilation to eliminate oxygen Insulating effects of immediate surroundings. Avoid piling combustible materials in confined spaces; separate burning materials and remove insulating materials.

Industrial Chemical Hazards that Harm the Body There are many common substances are apparently innocuous, prolonged breathing and or skin contact produce irritation and may bring about permanent impairment of health or even death. Many chemicals can cause severe burns, if these come in contact with living tissue. Living tissue may be destroyed by chemical reaction such as, dehydration by strong dehydrating agents, digestion by strong acids and bases, oxidation by strong oxidising agents.
Chloroform, benzene, chlorinated hydrocarbons, low boiling point fractions of petroleum are some of the common solvents used in pharmaceutical . Tolerance levels for toxic chemicals have been set Federal Regulations. Flammability and detonability of chemicals are available in most of the handbooks.

Types of Major Industrial Hazards Explosions: An explosion involves the production of a pressure discontinuity or blast wave resulting from a rapid release of energy. A pressure disturbance is generated in to the surrounding medium. Air becomes heated due to its compressibility and this leads to an increase in the velocity of sound, causing the front of disturbance to steepen as it hence the damage to the nearby targets are governed by the magnitude of and duration of pressure waves. Missiles may be generated by an explosion and are capable of causing severe damage to adjacent plant structures and people.
The explosion mainly occurs due to the rapid combustion of a flammable material but can be brought about the chemical reactions other than combustion, provided they release large amount of energy (heat).
Examples of these chemical reactions are Polymerisations, the decomposition of unstable substances and exothermic interactions of many kinds.
The explosions can mainly be categorised as Chemical explosions and Physical explosions

• Chemical Explosion: Chemical explosions in plant or in vessel can arise due to exothermic reaction occurring internally. Such reaction may involve decomposition of unstable substances, polymerisation of monomers, or combustion of fuel oxidant mixtures. Heating and increase of molecular number can result in a rise in pressure to the bursting point of the vessel, and explosives decompose so quickly that confinement and the development of pressure are self-imposed.

• Physical Explosion: It occurs simply due to over pressure as in the case of steam boiler and air receiver explosions. Fire is not necessarily a consequence. But fire involving stock, buildings and plant ancillaries can cause physical explosions due to overheating followed by the overpressure in vessels and also the fireballs if contents are flammable. One such case is termed as Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosion (BLEVE). The table 2 shows the symbol and descriptive nature of chemical hazard

Safety Management of Industrial Hazard
• Hazards shall be evaluated and appropriately controlled before work is performed to provide adequate protection to employees, the public and the environment.
• Engineered or administrative controls shall be in place to mitigate to acceptable levels work associated hazards.
• No work will be performed unless it can be done safely.
• Everyone in the workforce has the experience, knowledge, skills and abilities to perform their work safely and competently.
• There are clear roles and lines of responsibility, authority and accountability at all levels of the organisation.
• Everyone has the right to tell someone to stop a potentially dangerous or environmental threatening activity

Analyse the Hazard • During this step the hazards associated with a particular job, task or project are identified and analysed to determine regulatory and compliance needs.

Develop and Implement Hazard Controls
• After identifying the standards or regulations pertaining to a hazard or category of hazards, solutions are proposed to minimise risks, allowing for a safe and healthful work place. Implementation of the safety controls that mitigate or reduce hazards to acceptable levels is employed and the safety envelope is established.13, 14

Perform Work within Controls Manner
• Don't take chances, cut corners or rush to finish a job confirm the readiness of the safety controls to do their job (such as shielding for radiation or providing PPE to workers who may need it) and perform the work safely.

Provide for Feedback and Continuous Improvement
• Make a note if the job could have been done in a better way or more safely, and make the change happen. As within any system, feedback (such as from participation in daily installation meetings, meetings with supervisors, staff meetings, lessons learned programmes, etc) is a necessity to understand what works and what doesn’t work. This process allows for real time intervention and provides assurance the safety system operates to expectations.
• Every attempt should be incorporate facilities for health and safety, protections of personnel in the plant design. This includes (but it is not limited to) protected walkways, platforms stairs and work area. Any unavoidable physical hazards must be clearly defined. In such areas, means for exit must be guarded with protective devices. In all cases, medical devices and first aid must be readily available for all workers.15

The safety and security management system should be adopted in a complete manner by providing all the required inputs. In this article reveals that extensive research work has been carried out in industrial safety in the earlier part of the twentieth century. The article provides evidence of the investigator's knowledge of the field of investigation and also helps him in evolving new insights and builds new approaches to the problem under study.
For this people ensure that when a factory is being set up it has a clearance that shows that the industry that they are going to open is not an industrially hazardous one and also that this is not going to harm the environment in any way. That is, an environmental clearance should be there with the industry or factory owner. Secondly, if at all an industrially hazardous industry has to be set up it should be set up in an area where there is less human habitation and it should be the responsibility of the factory or industry owner to let the people know who are working in the factory about alternate escape routes in case a gas leak does take place.